Freshwater Bivalves of Illinois

Freshwater Bivalves of Illinois

The following lists were compiled by Kevin Cummings, Jeremy Tiemann, Alison Stodola, and Rachel Vinsel. Distributional data taken from Cummings (1991), Cummings and Mayer (1992), Tiemann and Cummings (2010), Tiemann and Cummings (2013), and Stodola et al. (2014). Taxonomy for mussels follows Williams et al. (2017).

Special status includes S – state threatened, SE – state endangered, FT – federally threatened, FE – federally endangered, X – extirpated, (†) – extinct, SGNC – Species in Greatest Need of Conservation (IL Wildlife Action Plan), I- introduced/non-native

Class Bivalvia

Order Unionoida – Freshwater Mussels (82 species)

Family Margaritiferidae (1 species)
Margaritifera monodonta (Say, 1829) – Spectaclecase SE, FE
Family Unionidae (81 species)
Subfamily Anodontinae
Alasmidonta marginata Say, 1818 – Elktoe
Alasmidonta viridis (Rafinesque, 1820) – Slippershell ST
Anodontoides ferussacianus (Lea, 1834) – Cylindrical Papershell
Arcidens confragosus (Say, 1829) – Rock Pocketbook SGNC
Lasmigona complanata (Barnes, 1823) – White Heelsplitter
Lasmigona compressa (Lea, 1829) – Creek Heelsplitter SGNC
Lasmigona costata (Rafinesque, 1820) – Flutedshell SGNC
Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829) – Giant Floater
Simpsonaias ambigua (Say, 1825) – Salamander Mussel SE
Strophitus undulatus (Say, 1817) – Creeper
Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829) – Paper Pondshell
Utterbackiana suborbiculata (Say, 1831) – Flat Floater
Subfamily Ambleminae
Actinonaias ligamentina (Lamarck, 1819) – Mucket
Amblema plicata (Say, 1817) – Threeridge
Cyclonaias nodulata (Rafinesque, 1820) – Wartyback
Cyclonaias pustulosa (Lea, 1831) – Pimpleback
Cyclonaias tuberculata (Rafinesque, 1820) – Purple Wartyback ST
Cyprogenia stegaria (Rafinesque, 1820) – Fanshell SE, FE
Ellipsaria lineolata (Rafinesque, 1820) – Butterfly ST
Elliptio crassidens (Lamarck, 1819) – Elephantear SE
Epioblasma flexuosa (Rafinesque, 1820) – Leafshell (†), X
Epioblasma obliquata (Rafinesque, 1820) – White Catspaw FE, X
Epioblasma personata (Say, 1829) – Combshell (†), X
Epioblasma phillipsii (Conrad, 1835) – Conrad’s Riffleshell (†), X
Epioblasma propinqua (Lea 1857) – Tennessee Riffleshell (†), X
Epioblasma rangiana (Lea, 1838) – Northern Riffleshell SE, FE
Epioblasma sampsonii (Lea, 1861) – Wabash Riffleshell (†), X
Epioblasma torulosa (Rafinesque, 1820) – Tubercled Blossom FE, X
Epioblasma triquetra (Rafinesque, 1820) – Snuffbox SE, FE
Eurynia dilatata Rafinesque, 1820 – Spike ST
Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque, 1820) – Wabash Pigtoe
Fusconaia subrotunda (Lea, 1831) – Longsolid X
Hemistena lata (Rafinesque, 1820) – Cracking Pearlymussel FE, X
Lampsilis abrupta (Say, 1831) – Pink Mucket SE, FE
Lampsilis cardium Rafinesque, 1820 – Plain Pocketbook
Lampsilis fasciola Rafinesque, 1820 – Wavyrayed Lampmussel SE
Lampsilis higginsii (Lea, 1857) – Higgin’s Eye SE, FE
Lampsilis hydiana (Lea, 1838) – Louisiana Fatmucket
Lampsilis ovata (Say, 1817) – Pocketbook
Lampsilis siliquoidea (Barnes, 1823) – Fatmucket
Lampsilis teres (Rafinesque, 1820) – Yellow Sandshell
Leptodea fragilis (Rafinesque, 1820) – Fragile Papershell
Leptodea leptodon (Rafinesque, 1820) – Scaleshell SE FE
Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819) – Black Sandshell ST
Ligumia subrostrata (Say, 1831) – Pondmussel
Megalonaias nervosa (Rafinesque, 1820) – Washboard
Obliquaria reflexa Rafinesque, 1820 – Threehorn Wartyback
Obovaria olivaria (Rafinesque, 1820) – Hickorynut
Obovaria retusa (Lamarck, 1819) – Ring Pink FE, X
Obovaria subrotunda (Rafinesque, 1820) – Round Hickorynut X
Plectomerous dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1827) – Bankclimber
Plethobasus cicatricosus (Say, 1829) – White Wartyback FE, X
Plethobasus cooperianus (Lea, 1834) – Orangefoot Pimpleback SE, FE
Plethobasus cyphyus (Rafinesque, 1820) – Sheepnose SE, FE
Pleurobema clava (Lamarck, 1819) – Clubshell SE, FE
Pleurobema cordatum (Rafinesque, 1820) – Ohio Pigtoe SE
Pleurobema plenum (Lea, 1840) – Rough Pigtoe FE, X
Pleurobema rubrum (Rafinesque, 1820) – Pyramid Pigtoe X
Pleurobema sintoxia (Rafinesque, 1820) – Round Pigtoe
Potamilus alatus (Say, 1817) – Pink Heelsplitter
Potamilus capax (Green, 1832) – Fat Pocketbook SE, FE
Potamilus ohiensis (Rafinesque, 1820) – Pink Papershell
Potamilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) – Bleufer
Ptychobranchus fasciolaris (Rafinesque, 1820) –Kidneyshell SE
Quadrula fragosa (Conrad, 1835) – Winged Mapleleaf FE, X
Quadrula nobilis (Contrad, 1854) – Gulf Mapleleaf
Quadrula quadrula (Rafinesque, 1820) – Mapleleaf
Reginaia ebenus (Lea, 1831) – Ebonyshell SE
Theliderma cylindrica (Say, 1817) – Rabbitsfoot FT, SE
Theliderma metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820) – Monkeyface SGNC

Toxolasma lividium (Rafinesque, 1831) – Purple Lilliput SE
Toxolasma parvum (Barnes, 1823) – Lilliput
Toxolasma texasiense (Lea, 1857) – Texas Lilliput
Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820) – Pistolgrip
Truncilla donaciformis (Lea, 1828) – Fawnsfoot
Truncilla truncata Rafinesque, 1820 – Deertoe
Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831) – Pondhorn
Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (Conrad, 1836) – Ellipse SGNC
Villosa fabalis (Lea, 1831) – Rayed Bean FE, X
Villosa iris (Lea, 1829) – Rainbow SE
Villosa lienosa (Conrad, 1834) – Little Spectaclecase ST

Order Venerioda

Family Sphaeriidae – Fingernail Clams (26 species)

Pisidium adamsi Prime, 1852 – Adam Peaclam
Pisidium casertanum (Poli, 1791) – Ubiquitous Peaclam
Pisidium compressum Prime, 1852 – Ridged-beak Peaclam
Pisidium conventus Clessin, 1877 – Alpine Peaclam
Pisidium cruciatum Sterki, 1895 – Ornamented Peaclam
Pisidium dubium (Say, 1817) – Greater Eastern Peaclam
Pisidium equilaterale Prime, 1852 – Round Peaclam
Pisidium fallax Sterki, 1896 – River Peaclam
Pisidium ferrugineum Prime, 1852 – Rusty Peaclam
Pisidium idahoense Roper, 1890 – Giant Northern Peaclam
Pisidium lilljeborgi (Clessin, 1886) – Lilljeborg Peaclam
Pisidium nitidum Jenyns, 1832 – Shiny Peaclam
Pisidium punctatum Sterki, 1895 – Perforated Peaclam
Pisidium punctiferum (Guppy, 1867) – Striate Peaclam
Pisidium rotundatum Prime, 1852 – Fat Peaclam
Pisidium variabile Prime, 1852 – Triangular Peaclam
Pisidium walkeri Sterki, 1895 – Walker Peaclam
Sphaerium fabale (Prime, 1852) – River Fingernailclam
Sphaerium lacustre (Müller, 1774) – Lake Fingernailclam
Sphaerium occidentale (Lewis, 1856) – Herrington Fingernailclam
Sphaerium partumeium (Say, 1822) – Swamp Fingernailclam
Sphaerium rhomboideum (Say, 1822) – Rhomboid Fingernailclam
Sphaerium securis (Prime, 1852) – Pond Fingernailclam
Sphaerium simile (Say, 1817) – Grooved Fingernailclam
Sphaerium striatinum (Lamarck, 1818) – Striated Fingernailclam
Sphaerium transversum (Say, 1829) – Long Fingernailclam

Family Corbiculidae (2 species)
Corbicula sp. – purple Asian clam I
Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) – Asian clam I
Corbicula largillierti (Phillipi, 1844) – Asian clam I
Corbicula form D – Asiam clam I
Family Dreissenidae (2 species)
Dreissena bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) – Quagga Mussel
Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) – Zebra mussel I

 

 

Footnotes

Introduced.

† Known as a Pleistocene fossil only.

Literature Cited

Cummings, K.S. 1991. The aquatic Mollusca of Illinois. Pp. 429-439 in L.M. Page and M.R. Jeffords, eds. Our living heritage: The biological resources of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 34(4):357–477.

Cummings, K.S. and C.A. Mayer. 1992. Field guide to freshwater mussels of the Midwest. Illinois Natural History Survey, Manual 5. 194 pp.

Stodola, A.P., S.A. Douglass, and D.K. Shasteen. 2014. Historical and current distributions of freshwater mussels in Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report 2014(37). 82 pp.

Tiemann, J.S. and K.S. Cummings. 2010. New record for the freshwater snail Lithasia geniculata (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae) in the Ohio River, Illinois, with comments on potential threats to the population. Southeastern Naturalist 9:171-176.

Tiemann, J.S., K.S. Cummings, and J.E. Schwegman. 2013. First occurrence of the bankclimber Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1827) (Mollusca: Unionidae) in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 106:1-2.

Williams, J.D., A.E. Bogan, R.S. Butler, K.S. Cummings, J.T. Garner, J.L. Harris. N.A. Johnson, and G.T. Watters. 2017. A Revised List of the Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20: 33-58.