Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque, 1820)
Other common names: Pigtoe.
Key characters: Triangular shell with a shallow sulcus usually present on the side, rough clothlike periostracum, deep beak cavity.
Similar species: All other pigtoes (Fusconaia and Pleurobema)
Description: Shell highly variable, moderately thick, triangular, and compressed (creeks and small rivers) to inflated (large rivers). Anterior end rounded, posterior end bluntly pointed. Dorsal margin straight, ventral margin curved anteriorly and straight or slightly arched posteriorly. Umbos low to moderately elevated and inflated. Beak sculpture of a few weak ridges apparent only in very small shells. A wide, shallow depression or sulcus usually present. Shell with a clothlike texture, yellowish brown, with faint green rays visible in young individuals, becoming chestnut or dark brown in older shells. Length to 3 inches (7.6 cm).
Pseudocardinal teeth well developed, rough; two in the left valve, one in the right. Lateral teeth straight or slightly curved, serrated; two in the left valve, one in the right, occasionally with a second smaller lateral tooth. Beak cavity deep. Nacre white, or tinged with salmon, iridescent posteriorly.
Habitat: Creeks to large rivers in mud, sand, or gravel.
Status: Widespread and common.